CHI Publications

Data gathered on clergy and seminarian mental, spiritual, and physical well-being have resulted in over 50 peer-reviewed articles and a book about clergy health.

Click here for a list of articles + abstracts


Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Eagle, D. E., Tice, L. C., Platt, A., Yao, J., Larkins, J. S., Kim, E. T., & Rash, J. A. (2024). The Selah trial: A preference-based partially randomized waitlist control study of three stress management interventionsTranslational Behavioral Medicine, ibae017.

Lee, B. H. J., Holleman, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R. J. (2024). Stability and shifts in the combined positive and negative mental health of clergy: A longitudinal latent class and latent transition analysis study of united methodist pastors before and after the onset of COVID-19Social Science & Medicine, 116651.

Holleman, A. & Eagle, D. (2023). Is there a crisis in clergy health?: Reorienting research using a national sample. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Eagle, D.E., Tice, L.C. et al. (2023). The Selah pilot study of spiritual, mindfulness, and stress inoculation practices on stress-related outcomes among United Methodist Clergy in the United States. Journal of Religion and Health.

Yao J., Steinberg D., Turner L., Cai, G., Cameron J., Hybels C., Eagle D., Milstein G., Rash J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2023). When shepherds shed: Trajectories of weight, diet, and exercise in a holistic health intervention tailored for US Christian clergy. Journal of Religion and Health.

Biru, B., Yao, J., Plunkett, J., Hybels, C.F., Kim, E. T., Eagle, D. E., Choi, J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2022). The gap in mental health services utilization among United Methodist clergy with anxiety and depression symptoms. Journal of Religion and Health, 62(3), 1597-1615.

Holleman, Anna. (2022). The resilience of clergywomen?: Gender and the relationship between occupational distress and mental health among congregational leaders. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 62(1), 89-107.

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Stringfield, B., Yao, J., Choi, J., Eagle, D., Hybels, C., Parnell, H., Keefe, K., & Shilling, S. (2021). Changes in Sabbath-keeping and mental health over time: Evaluation findings from the Sabbath Living study. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 50(2), 123-138.

Hybels, C. F., Blazer, D. G., Eagle, D. E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2020). Age differences in trajectories of depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms in a population with a high likelihood of persistent occupational stress. International Psychogeriatrics, 34(1), 21-32.

Keyes, C., Yao, J., Hybels, C. F., Milstein, G., & Proeschold-Bell, R. J. (2020). Are changes in positive mental health associated with increased likelihood of depression over a two-year period? A test of the mental health promotion and protection hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 270, 136–142.

Hough, H., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Liu, X., Weisner, C., Turner, E.L., & Yao, J. (2019). Relationships between Sabbath observance and mental, physical, and spiritual health in clergy. Pastoral Psychology, 68(2), 171-193.

Lutz, J., & Eagle, D. E. (2019). Social networks, support, and depressive symptoms: Gender differences among clergy. Socius, 5,

Milstein, G., Hybels, C., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2019). A prospective study of clergy spiritual well-being, depressive symptoms, and occupational distress. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 409-416.

Case, A.D., Eagle, D.E., Yao, J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Disentangling race and socioeconomic status in health disparities research: An examination of black and white clergy. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 5(5), 1014-1022.

Eagle, D., Hybels, C., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Perceived social support, received social support, and depression among clergy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(7) 2055-2073.

Hybels, C., Blazer, D.G., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Persistent depressive symptoms in a population with high-level of occupational stress: Trajectories offer insignts to both chroninicity and resilience. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 24(6), 399-409.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Steinberg, D., Yao, J., Eagle, D.E., Smith, T.W., Cai, G., & Turner, E.L. (2018). Using a holistic health approach to achieve long-term weight maintenance: Results from the Spirited Life intervention. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 10(1) 223-233.

Adams, C., Hough, H., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Yao, J., & Kolkin, M. (2017). Clergy burnout: A comparison study with other helping professionalsPastoral Psychology, 66(2), 147-175.

Eagle, D., Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2017). The honeymoon is over: Occupational relocation and changes in mental health among United Methodist clergy. Review of Religious Research, 59 (1), 31-45,

Smith, T.W., Eagle, D.E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2017). Prospective association between depressive symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. The Spirited Life study of United Methodist pastors in North Carolina. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 51(4), 610-619.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Turner, E. L., Bennett, G. G., Yao, J., Li, X.-F., Eagle, D. E., Meyer, R. A., Williams, R. B., Swift, R. Y., Moore, H. E., Kolkin, M. A., Weisner, C. C., Rugani, K. M., Hough, H. J., Williams, V. P., & Toole, D. C. (2017). A 2-year holistic health and stress intervention: Results of an RCT in clergyAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(3), 290-299.

Blouin, R., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2015). Measuring stress in a clergy population: Lessons learned from cognitive interview testing of the Perceived Stress Scale with clergy. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 26, 141-154.

Eagle, D.E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2015). Methodological considerations in the use of name generators and interpreters. Social Networks, 40(2015), 75-83.

Georggi Walther, N., Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Benjamin Neelon, S.E., Adipo, S., & Kamaara, E. (2015). We hide under the Scriptures”: Conceptualization of health among United Methodist Church clergy in Kenya. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(6), 2235-2248,  12

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Smith, B., Eisenberg, A., LeGrand, S., Adams, C., & Wilk, A. (2015). The Glory of God is a human being fully alive: Predictors of positive versus negative mental health among clergyJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 54(4), 702-721.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Yang, C., Toth, M., Rivers, M., & Carder, K. (2014). Closeness to God among those doing God's work: A spiritual well-being measure for clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3), 878-894.

LeGrand, S., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., James, J., & Wallace, A. (2013). Healthy leaders: Multilevel health promotion considerations for diverse United Methodist church pastors. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3), 303-321.

Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2013). Overcoming the challenges challenges of pastoral work? Peer support groups and psychological distress among United Methodist Church clergy. Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review, 74(2).

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Miles, A., Toth, M. Adams, C, Smith, B., & Toole, D. (2013). Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergyJournal of Primary Prevention, 34(6), 439-453.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Swift, R., Bennett, G., Moore, H. E., Li, X., Blouin, R., Williams, V., Williams, R., & Toole, D. (2013). Use randomized multiple baseline baseline design: Rationale and design on the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 35(2), 138-152.

Cutts, T.F., Gunderson, G., Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Swift, R. (2012). The life of leaders: An intensive health program for clergyJournal of Religion and Health, 51(4), 1317-1324.

Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2012). Are rural clergy worse off?: An examination of occupational conditions and pastoral experiences in a sample of United Methodist clergy. Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review, 73(1), 23-45.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J. & LeGrand, S. (2012). Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(3), 734-742.

Wallace, A., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., LeGrand, S., James, J., Swift, R., Toole, D., & Toth, M. (2012). Health programming for clergy: An overview of protestant programs in the United StatesPastoral Psychology, 61, 113-143.

Miles, A., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Puffer, E. (2011). Explaining rural/non-rural disparities in physical health-related quality of life: A study of United Methodist clergy in North Carolina. Quality of Life Research, 20(6), 807-815.

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., LeGrand, S., James, J., Wallace, A., Adams, C., & Toole, D. (2011). A theoretical model of holistic health of United Methodist clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(3), 700-720.

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., & LeGrand, S. (2010). High rates of obesity and chronic disease among United Methodist ClergyObesity, 18(9), 1867-1870. 


Proeschold-Bell, R.J. & Byassee, J. (May 2018). Faithful and fractured: Responding to the clergy health crisis. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.