CHI Publications

Data gathered on clergy and seminarian mental, spiritual, and physical well-being have resulted in over 50 peer-reviewed articles and a book about clergy health.

Click here for a list of articles + abstracts

PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES 

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Eagle, D. E., Tice, L. C., Platt, A., Yao, J., Larkins, J. S., Kim, E. T., & Rash, J. A. (2024). The Selah trial: A preference-based partially randomized waitlist control study of three stress management interventionsTranslational Behavioral Medicine, ibae017. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibae017

Lee, B. H. J., Holleman, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R. J. (2024). Stability and shifts in the combined positive and negative mental health of clergy: A longitudinal latent class and latent transition analysis study of united methodist pastors before and after the onset of COVID-19Social Science & Medicine, 116651.

Holleman, A. & Eagle, D. (2023). Is there a crisis in clergy health?: Reorienting research using a national sample. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12859

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Eagle, D.E., Tice, L.C. et al. (2023). The Selah pilot study of spiritual, mindfulness, and stress inoculation practices on stress-related outcomes among United Methodist Clergy in the United States. Journal of Religion and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-023-01848-x

Yao J., Steinberg D., Turner L., Cai, G., Cameron J., Hybels C., Eagle D., Milstein G., Rash J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2023). When shepherds shed: Trajectories of weight, diet, and exercise in a holistic health intervention tailored for US Christian clergy. Journal of Religion and Health. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-023-01910-8

Biru, B., Yao, J., Plunkett, J., Hybels, C.F., Kim, E. T., Eagle, D. E., Choi, J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2022). The gap in mental health services utilization among United Methodist clergy with anxiety and depression symptoms. Journal of Religion and Health, 62(3), 1597-1615. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-022-01699-y

Holleman, Anna. (2022). The resilience of clergywomen?: Gender and the relationship between occupational distress and mental health among congregational leaders. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 62(1), 89-107. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12817

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Stringfield, B., Yao, J., Choi, J., Eagle, D., Hybels, C., Parnell, H., Keefe, K., & Shilling, S. (2021). Changes in Sabbath-keeping and mental health over time: Evaluation findings from the Sabbath Living study. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 50(2), 123-138. https://doi.org/10.1177/00916471211046227

Hybels, C. F., Blazer, D. G., Eagle, D. E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2020). Age differences in trajectories of depressive, anxiety, and burnout symptoms in a population with a high likelihood of persistent occupational stress. International Psychogeriatrics, 34(1), 21-32. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220001751

Keyes, C., Yao, J., Hybels, C. F., Milstein, G., & Proeschold-Bell, R. J. (2020). Are changes in positive mental health associated with increased likelihood of depression over a two-year period? A test of the mental health promotion and protection hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 270, 136–142. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.03.056

Hough, H., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Liu, X., Weisner, C., Turner, E.L., & Yao, J. (2019). Relationships between Sabbath observance and mental, physical, and spiritual health in clergy. Pastoral Psychology, 68(2), 171-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11089-018-0838-9

Lutz, J., & Eagle, D. E. (2019). Social networks, support, and depressive symptoms: Gender differences among clergy. Socius, 5, https://doi.org/10.1177/237802311987382

Milstein, G., Hybels, C., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2019). A prospective study of clergy spiritual well-being, depressive symptoms, and occupational distress. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 12(4), 409-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000252

Case, A.D., Eagle, D.E., Yao, J., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Disentangling race and socioeconomic status in health disparities research: An examination of black and white clergy. Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, 5(5), 1014-1022. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40615-017-0449-7

Eagle, D., Hybels, C., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Perceived social support, received social support, and depression among clergy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(7) 2055-2073. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407518776134

Hybels, C., Blazer, D.G., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2018). Persistent depressive symptoms in a population with high-level of occupational stress: Trajectories offer insignts to both chroninicity and resilience. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 24(6), 399-409. https://doi.org/10.1097/PRA.0000000000000337

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Steinberg, D., Yao, J., Eagle, D.E., Smith, T.W., Cai, G., & Turner, E.L. (2018). Using a holistic health approach to achieve long-term weight maintenance: Results from the Spirited Life intervention. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 10(1) 223-233. https://doi.org/10.1093/tbm/iby117

Adams, C., Hough, H., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Yao, J., & Kolkin, M. (2017). Clergy burnout: A comparison study with other helping professionalsPastoral Psychology, 66(2), 147-175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11089-016-0722-4

Eagle, D., Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2017). The honeymoon is over: Occupational relocation and changes in mental health among United Methodist clergy. Review of Religious Research, 59 (1), 31-45, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13644-016-0263-4

Smith, T.W., Eagle, D.E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2017). Prospective association between depressive symptoms and the metabolic syndrome. The Spirited Life study of United Methodist pastors in North Carolina. Annals of Behavioral Medicine: A Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine, 51(4), 610-619. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-017-9883-3

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Turner, E. L., Bennett, G. G., Yao, J., Li, X.-F., Eagle, D. E., Meyer, R. A., Williams, R. B., Swift, R. Y., Moore, H. E., Kolkin, M. A., Weisner, C. C., Rugani, K. M., Hough, H. J., Williams, V. P., & Toole, D. C. (2017). A 2-year holistic health and stress intervention: Results of an RCT in clergyAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine, 53(3), 290-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2017.04.009

Blouin, R., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2015). Measuring stress in a clergy population: Lessons learned from cognitive interview testing of the Perceived Stress Scale with clergy. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 26, 141-154. https://doi.org/10.1163/9789004299436_010

Eagle, D.E., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2015). Methodological considerations in the use of name generators and interpreters. Social Networks, 40(2015), 75-83. https://doi.org/0.1016/j.socnet.2014.07.005

Georggi Walther, N., Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Benjamin Neelon, S.E., Adipo, S., & Kamaara, E. (2015). We hide under the Scriptures”: Conceptualization of health among United Methodist Church clergy in Kenya. Journal of Religion and Health, 54(6), 2235-2248, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-014-9947-7  12

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Smith, B., Eisenberg, A., LeGrand, S., Adams, C., & Wilk, A. (2015). The Glory of God is a human being fully alive: Predictors of positive versus negative mental health among clergyJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 54(4), 702-721. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12234

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Yang, C., Toth, M., Rivers, M., & Carder, K. (2014). Closeness to God among those doing God's work: A spiritual well-being measure for clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 53(3), 878-894. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-013-9682-5

LeGrand, S., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., James, J., & Wallace, A. (2013). Healthy leaders: Multilevel health promotion considerations for diverse United Methodist church pastors. Journal of Community Psychology, 41(3), 303-321. https://doi.org/10.1002/jcop.21539

Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2013). Overcoming the challenges challenges of pastoral work? Peer support groups and psychological distress among United Methodist Church clergy. Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review, 74(2). https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srs055

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Miles, A., Toth, M. Adams, C, Smith, B., & Toole, D. (2013). Using effort-reward imbalance theory to understand high rates of depression and anxiety among clergyJournal of Primary Prevention, 34(6), 439-453. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10935-013-0321-4

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Swift, R., Bennett, G., Moore, H. E., Li, X., Blouin, R., Williams, V., Williams, R., & Toole, D. (2013). Use randomized multiple baseline baseline design: Rationale and design on the Spirited Life holistic health intervention study. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 35(2), 138-152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2013.05.005

Cutts, T.F., Gunderson, G., Proeschold-Bell, R. J., Swift, R. (2012). The life of leaders: An intensive health program for clergyJournal of Religion and Health, 51(4), 1317-1324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-010-9436-6

Miles, A., & Proeschold-Bell, R.J. (2012). Are rural clergy worse off?: An examination of occupational conditions and pastoral experiences in a sample of United Methodist clergy. Sociology of Religion: A Quarterly Review, 73(1), 23-45. https://doi.org/10.1093/socrel/srr025

Proeschold-Bell, R.J. & LeGrand, S. (2012). Physical health functioning among United Methodist clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 51(3), 734-742. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-010-9372-5

Wallace, A., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., LeGrand, S., James, J., Swift, R., Toole, D., & Toth, M. (2012). Health programming for clergy: An overview of protestant programs in the United StatesPastoral Psychology, 61, 113-143. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11089-011-0382-3

Miles, A., Proeschold-Bell, R.J., Puffer, E. (2011). Explaining rural/non-rural disparities in physical health-related quality of life: A study of United Methodist clergy in North Carolina. Quality of Life Research, 20(6), 807-815. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-010-9817-z

Proeschold-Bell, R.J., LeGrand, S., James, J., Wallace, A., Adams, C., & Toole, D. (2011). A theoretical model of holistic health of United Methodist clergy. Journal of Religion and Health, 50(3), 700-720. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-009-9250-1

Proeschold-Bell, R. J., & LeGrand, S. (2010). High rates of obesity and chronic disease among United Methodist ClergyObesity, 18(9), 1867-1870. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2010.102 

Books 

Proeschold-Bell, R.J. & Byassee, J. (May 2018). Faithful and fractured: Responding to the clergy health crisis. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic.